Veröffentlichungen von Lori Frost

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Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (1998). The picture exchange communication system.
Seminars in Speech and Language Weiterlesen...

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds “sentence” structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed.

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (2001). The Picture Exchange Communication System.
Behavior Modification Weiterlesen...

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously non-vocal students is reviewed. (

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (2003). Communication strategies for visual learners.
Teaching Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Basic Intervention Techniques Weiterlesen...

In O.I. Lovaas (Ed.). Teaching Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Basic Intervention Techniques (pp. 291-303). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. [Book chapter].

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (2008). Autism 24/7: A Family Guide to Learning at Home and in the Community.
Woodbine House Weiterlesen...

Baltimore, MD: Woodbine House.

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (2009). The Picture Exchange Communication System: Clinical and Research Applications.
In P. Mirenda & T. Iacono (Eds.) Autism Spectrum Disorders and AAC. Paul Brookes Publishing Company Weiterlesen...

Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing Company. Pp. 279-302.

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (2016). Is PECS a good choice within an iPad world?
Behavior Analysis and Technology Weiterlesen...

Behavior Analysis and Technology, July.

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
AUTISM ADVOCATE Parenting Magazine, 24-27 Weiterlesen...

The Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS®) was first described in autism research literature in the early 1990s. Since that time, there have been almost 200 publications about the PECS protocol from countries around the world. The manualized PECS protocol has six key phases beginning with simple requests involving single icons, and building toward commenting, responding to other people's communication, and increased message length through picture combinations.1 We developed the protocol with very young children with autism spectrum disorder [ASDJ, but there are now publications involving adolescents and adults, as well as individuals with a wide variety of learning needs.

Bondy, A. & Frost, L.(1994a) The Delaware Autistic Program.
In S. Harris & J. Handleman (Eds.),Preschool Programsfor Children with Autism.(pp. 37-54) Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (1993) Mands across the water: A report on the application of the Picture-Exchange Communication System in Peru.

The Behavior Analyst. 16, 123-128.

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. (1995) Educational approaches in preschool: Behavioral techniques in a public school setting.
Learning and Cognition in Autism Weiterlesen...

In E. Schopler & G. Mesibov (Eds.). Learning and Cognition in Autism. (pp. 311-333). New York: Plenum Pub. Co.